Prebiotics Inulin, a type of fiber found in certain plant-based foods and fiber supplements, causes inflammation in the gut and exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease in a preclinical model (Mar 2024) Dietary fiber is a critical determinant of pathologic ILC2 responses and intestinal inflammation

Michael Harrop

Active member
Jul 6, 2023

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) can promote host defense, chronic inflammation, or tissue protection and are regulated by cytokines and neuropeptides. However, their regulation by diet and microbiota-derived signals remains unclear.

We show that an inulin fiber diet promotes Tph1-expressing inflammatory ILC2s (ILC2INFLAM) in the colon, which produce IL-5 but not tissue-protective amphiregulin (AREG), resulting in the accumulation of eosinophils. This exacerbates inflammation in a murine model of intestinal damage and inflammation in an ILC2- and eosinophil-dependent manner. Mechanistically, the inulin fiber diet elevated microbiota-derived bile acids, including cholic acid (CA) that induced expression of ILC2-activating IL-33.

In IBD patients, bile acids, their receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), IL-33, and eosinophils were all upregulated compared with controls, implicating this diet–microbiota–ILC2 axis in human IBD pathogenesis.

Together, these data reveal that dietary fiber–induced changes in microbial metabolites operate as a rheostat that governs protective versus pathologic ILC2 responses with relevance to precision nutrition for inflammatory diseases.

Another example of possible detriments from prebiotics
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